Alexander opened his speech saying he was going to describe what’s “going on in cyberspace and what do we need to change.” Then he offered the example of the German’s use of disruptive technology, using radios and tying air power to its land forces to defeat the French and British in the Second World War, to point to uses of force “in a way that no one has anticipated.”
All his examples pointed to the use by other countries of offensives capabilities. He listed seven of what were baldly labeled “Russian Attacks,’ ranging from denial of service attacks on Estonia in 2007 to similar attacks on Latvia last year. There was no delicate talk of the difficulties of attribution during Alexander’s talk. It was all about protecting America’s networks.