Linking cyber and technology policy is a form of techno nationalism that’s widely and deeply held by Chinese policymakers. The objectives are clear: China doesn’t want to depend on other countries for critical technologies, the United States and Japan in particular. The 2006 Medium to Long Term Plan on Science and Technology (MLP) puts it plainly: “Facts have proved that, in areas critical to the national economy and security, core technologies cannot be purchased.” The Chinese tend to see the current system as, if not unfair, then stacked against them, and so commentaries often focus on competitors’ unfair advantages (U.S. firms dominate hardware and software sectors, 10 of the 13 root servers in U.S.) and China’s victimization (China is the biggest victim of cybercrime).